History of Georgia

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The Georgian Democratic Republic was recognized by many states of the world. On May 7, 1920 the Georgian government signed a peace treaty with Russia. This treaty was violated on February 25, 1921, when the Red Army occupied and sovietized Georgia. The practically annexed Georgia joined the USSR (1922), continuing as the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic till 1990.
On October 28, 1990 truly democratic elections were held, resulting in a defeat of the Communist party and the victory of the bloc "Round Table-Free Georgia". At the inaugural session of the newly-elected Supreme Council the independent Republic of Georgia with a democratic system of government was proclaimed.
On April 9, 1991 an extraordinary meeting of the First Session of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia unanimously adopted the Act on the Restoration of the Independent Statehood of Georgia.
The statehood of Georgia rooted in the centuries, was lost by the Georgian people in the 19th century, when the Russian Empire annexed Georgia and abolished her statehood. The Georgian people were never reconciled to the loss of liberty. On the basis of the Act of Independence of May 26, 1918 Georgia's statehood was restored and the democratic Republic of Georgia was formed with its own Constitution and representative organs of power, elected on the multiparty basis.
On February-March 1921 Soviet Russia, flagrantly violating the Peace Treaty concluded between Georgia and Russia on May 7, 1918, occupied - through armed aggression - the Georgian state it had recognized, and later effected its actual annexation. Inasmuch as Georgia did not enter the Soviet Union of her own free will, and her statehood, restored in 1918, exists to the present day, the Act of the Independence of Georgia and her Constitution have legal force today too, since the Government of the Democratic Republic of Georgia did not sign the act of surrender and continued its activities in exile.
The entire period of Georgia's forcible sojourn within the USSR is marked with sanguinary terror and repression, the last manifestation of which was the tragedy of April 9, 1989. The clandestine was against Georgia is continuing today too with the aim of balking Georgia's striving for freedom and democracy.
Proceeding from the will of Georgia's population, expressed unanimously in the referendum of March 31, 1991, the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia, elected on October 28, 1990 in the course of multiparty democratic election, hereby rules and proclaims to the world community the restoration of the independent statehood of Georgia on the basis of the Act of the Independence of Georgia of May 26, 1918.
The territory of the sovereign Republic of Georgia is single and indivisible. Only the Constitution and power of the Republic of Georgia are supreme on the territory of the Republic of Georgia. Any action aimed at limiting the supremacy of the power of the Republic of Georgia or at violating her territorial integrity shall be qualified as interference in the internal affairs of a sovereign state and aggression - as a gross violation of international law.
The primacy of international law with regard to the laws of the Republic of Georgia and direct operation of its norms on the territory of Georgia are one of the basic constitutional principles of the Republic of Georgia.
Willing to occupy a worthy place in the world community, the Republic of Georgia recognizes and equally ensures all basic human rights and freedoms envisaged by international law, as well as the rights and liberties of national, ethnic, religious and language groups, as required by the Charter of the United Nations, and other international treaties and conventions.
The Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia hereby pledges to unswervingly observe the universally accepted principles of political, economic and cultural cooperation with other states.
The restoration of the independent statehood of the Republic of Georgia is in full conformity with the Charter of the United Nations, with the Helsinki and Vienna Acts, which recognize and confirm the right of every nation to independently determine the political destiny of its country.
The Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia hopes that the international community of nations will not remain indifferent to the legal and just moves of the Georgian people and will recognize the resuscitated independent statehood of Georgia, which will become one of the most reliable guarantees of the security of the Republic of Georgia.
Signed by the members of the Supreme Council and the Government of the Republic of Georgia TbilisiSee April 9, 1991See 12.30 p.m.
Parliamentary elections were held in Georgia on 11 October 1992. A great majority of the Georgian population supported Eduard Shevardnadze and elected him on the basis of universal suffrage as Chairman of the Republic's Parliament. The newly elected Parliament invested E. Shevardnadze with Powers of Head of State.
On April 27 1999 Georgia accessed to the Council of Europe and thus the Georgian State has embarked on the road of democratic construction.