History of Georgia

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At the end of the 7th cent. 8.C. the Median kingdom gained power to the south-east of Georgia, superseded in mid-6th cent. by the Persian state of the Achaemenids. The latter subdued the population of Georgia: the Tibarenes, Mossinikoi, Macrones, Moschi and Mares were within the 19th satrapy, paying the Persians an annual tribute. The Kolkhi, who lived northward, were obliged to send to Persia a hundred girls and a hundred boys every five years. Only three nations were obliged to pay such kind of contribution and they are: Kolkhi,  ancient Ethiopia and Arab tribes.
As far back as in the 6th cent. B.C. the Kingdom of Kolkha (now referred to as the Kingdom of Egrisi) struck its own silver coins known in special literature as "white Colchian coins". These coins circulated widely not only in the Black Sea littoral, but also in the Kingdom of Kartli (Iberia) and beyond its borders.
The advanced economy and favorable geographic and natural conditions of Coichis attracted the Greeks; they colonized the Black Sea coast, setting up their settlements: Phasis (in the vicinity of present-day Poti), Gyenos (Ochamchiré), Dioscurias (Sukhumi), Anakopia (Akhali Atoni) and Pityus (Bichvinta). The influence, exerted on Kolkha by the vast Achaemenian Empire with its thriving commerce and subsequently the economic and commercial ties with other regions (Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, the northern Black Sea coast) accelerated in many ways the social-economic development of the region.
The 6th-4th cent. B.C. was the time of intensive consolidation of the Kartli (Iberia)an tribes largely inhabiting eastern and southern Georgia. Meskhian tribes came to the fore, gradually moving north-eastwards and forming their settlements in the very heart of Kartii. Mtskheta was one of such settlements, deriving its name from the ethnonym "Meskhians".
The struggle between the various Georgian confederations ultimately resulted in the formation of the Kingdom of Kartli (Iberia) (Iberia) with Mtskheta as its capital. According to ancient Georgian tradition the creation of the kingdom is dated to the end of the 4th cent. B.C. and linked to the name of King Parnavaz I (the founder of the Parnavazid dynasty), who expelled the invaders (Macedonian army with their commander Azo) from Georgia and began to reign over the liberated country. The Meskhians, who preserved and carried over cultural and religious traditions inherited from the Hittites and other nations of Asia Minor, played an active role in the creation of the kingdom, where the god of the Moon Armazi and the goddess of fertility Zadeni (both names of Hittite origin) became the chief deities. During Parnavaz I's reign Armazis-tsikhh,the citadel of the capital, and an idol representing the god Armazi, were erected. According to Kartli (Iberia)s Tskhovreba ("History of Georgia"), Parnavaz I created the Georgian script. But recent researches testifyed that Georgian scripts are created in II-I milleniums B.C. Noteworthy to mention that Georgian language is related to famous Shumerian language. Archaeological finds show that from early times Mtskheta had been an advanced and powerful city. This is graphically corroborated by the monuments of architecture (acropolis, etc.), unearthed in the city and its environs. The Kingdoms of Kartli (Iberia) (Iberia) and Kolkhis were one of the first state formations in the Caucasus.
Ancient Georgian states maintained political and economic ties with Achaemenid Iran, the Seleucids, Pontus, etc. Thus, in the 6th-4th cent. B.C. the Kingdoms of Kartli (Iberia) and of Kolkha played a significant role in the economic and political life of the ancient world.
In the classical period Georgia gained in strength: her agriculture and crafts developed and towns sprang up. Under Parnavaz and his successor Saurmag the Kingdom of Kartli (Iberia) comprised not only Eastern Georgia, but some adjacent areas as well. It incorporated part of Western Georgia to form an administrative unit of Kartli (Iberia) (Iberia), viz. the Argveti eristavate. The Kingdom of Egrisi also came under the influence of the Kingdom of Kartli (Iberia). This contributed to closer contacts among the Georgian population and paved the way for a quick unification of these tribes of the same ethnic root, and for the formation of a single Georgian nation.
As a result of Pontus Wars between Pontus Kingdom and Rome, The Kingdoms of Kartli (Iberia) and of Kolkha waged incessant wars against foreign conquerors who strove to subjugate them (especially in the 1st cent. B.C.). Here the Romans should be mentioned first. In 66 B.C., having defeated the Kingdom of Pontus and King Mithradates VI (who was considered by Romas as one of the most dangerous foe), they, led by G. Pompey, started military operations against Armenia, Albania and Kartli (Iberia). Subjugating Armenia, Pompey marched into Kartli (Iberia) and Albania. In 65 B.C. King Artag of Kartli (Iberia) after ferocious battles, was forced to surrender and pay contribution - golden throne, seat and table. From here Pompey crossed to Western Georgia and reached the city of Phasis. Later he subdued Albania too.
The population of Kartli (Iberia) offered stubborn resistance to the Romans, causing the latter to give up the idea of reducing Kartli (Iberia) once and for all. In the 1st cent. B.C. Kartli (Iberia) emerged as a strong state, conducting an independent policy.