Sunday, December 17, 2017

State Coats of Arms of Georgia

New large and small state coats of arms of Georgia

state coats of arms of Georgia

It can be boldly stated that the new stage of Georgian heraldry started since March 2, 2004 when with the Decree of the President of Georgia, the "State Temporary Commission on problems of the State attributes of Georgia and proposals" was established. It was preceded with the Resolution of the Parliament of Georgia of June 9, 1999 on alteration of the state attributes - the coat of arms, flag and the anthem.
The above-mentioned Commission implemented the enormous work within the period less than one year to create the new state coat of arms and the motto (legend) of Georgia in correspondence with the European heraldic rules.
The Commission, under the conditions of the huge interest of then Georgian society and on the basis of the rich historic material, created the contest conditions for the state coat of arms and the motto of the coat of arms of Georgia, and at the same time, elaborated the draft organic law "On State Coat of Arms of Georgia". 
As a result of the interesting and active contest, and after the vigorous passions, on November 1, 2004, the Parliament of Georgia adopted the above-mentioned law, thus officially ratified the large and the small state coats of arms of the following achievement (blazoning): the large state coat of arms - the argent rider - St. George - with the or halo, slaying the argent dragon with the argent lance, tipped with the or cross on the gules field of the French shield. The shield is crested with the "Iberian" (Georgian) crown. Two or lions, carrying the shield, rampant on the formalized ornament basis of the vine. There is the argent bow with the gules reverse side with the sable motto (legend) - "Unity makes strength". There are single gules heraldic crosses depicted above and below the motto.
The small state coat of arms - the argent rider - St. George - with the or halo, slaying the argent dragon with the argent lance, tipped with the or cross on the gules field of the French shield. The shield is crested with the "Iberian" (Georgian) crown.
The activity of the Temporary Commission was continued in 2008 by the State Heraldry Council, set up at the Parliament of Georgia, which despite manifold impediments, eventually regulated the state heraldic sphere in Georgia, bringing it in compliance with the international standards and thus, continued working on Georgian territorial coats of arms and other emblems, which we will in details describe below.
Concerning this topic, we consider necessary to personally name all those persons, who peculiarly participated in creation of state coat of arms of Georgia, corresponding to the new contemporary and still classic European heraldic rules:

  1. State Temporary Commission on problems of the State attributes of Georgia and proposals: E. Shengelaia - Chairman of the Commission, the Deputy-Chairman of the Parliament of Georgia; D. Muskhelishvili - Academician, Director of the Institute of History and Ethnology; G. Getsadze - the Deputy-Minister of Justice; Z. Dekanoidze - the Head of the forensic examination Department of the Ministry of Justice; T. Asatiani - the heraldic scientist, the candidate of historical sciences; M. Apridonidze - the heraldic scientist, the candidate of historical sciences; I. Bichikashvili - the heraldic scientist, member of the "House of Bagrationis Society"; M. Kiknadze - the heraldic scientist; M. Tsurtsumia - the heraldic scientist; N. Meipariani - secretary of the Commission, archivist; Ts. Zakaidze - coordinator of activity of the Commission, the staff member of the Parliament of Georgia.
  2. The State Coat of arms jury members: Z. Abashidze - candidate of historical sciences, docent; T. Dundua - doctor of historical sciences, professor; K. Kutateladze - artist, docent of the Academy of Arts; G. Khoshtaria - candidate of art sciences, docent of the Tbilisi State University; N. Javakhishvili - doctor of historical sciences, professor of the Tbilisi State University.
  3. The jury members on the motto of the State Coat of arms: M. Kvlividze - poet; Z. Abzianidze - doctor of philosophic sciences, professor, expert in the sphere of literature of the Committee on Novel Prizes of the Academy of Sweden; R. Amaglobeli - poet; G. Benashvili - doctor of philological sciences, professor, academician, expert in the sphere of literature of the Committee on Novel Prizes of the Academy of Sweden; L. Bakradze - specialist of Germanistic languages, candidate of historical sciences.
  4. Authors of the motto "Unity makes strength": V. Bakhtadze; T. Nanitashvili.

Personal merit of Mr. Eldar Shengelaia is particularly noteworthy in creation of the new Georgian state symbols, inasmuch as without his authority, competence, patience and ability to achieve compromises, it would be impossible to successfully accomplish  this glorious work. 
And in the end, it is a pleasure that along with the above-mentioned objects, as a result of the prolonged work in the royal treasury of the Netherlands, the volume standards of the large and the small coats of arms of Georgia, plated with bronze, were created in February 2007.

"Concerning the contest for the State Coat of arms of Georgia". Publishing house "Polygraph", Tbilisi, 2008, pages 24-25.

Coat of arms of Trans-Caucasus SFSR

Coat of arms of Trans Caucasus SFSR

The Coat of arms of Trans-Caucasus Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (TSFSR) was adopted at the I Congress of the Trans-Caucasus Councils on December 10-13, 1922. The Coat of arms, as well as TSFSR, existed for only 14 years - in 1922-1936. The symbol of this temporary formation, which was the part of the Soviet Union, had the following achievement: chief section - the sickle and hammer on the background of the sun-rays, rising from the sable hill and the mountains. Above there is the five-point mullet depicted in the sun-rays; base section - smoking chimney-stalks. In the center there is the plant composition: the vine with the cluster, cotton, corn, several wheat ears. The coat of arms is mantled with the gules bow with Georgian, Armenian and Azerbaijanian script "TSFSR". There is the Russian legend on the or field below the bow: "Proletarians of all countries, unite!" In 1990s, Georgia restored independence and the coat of arms of 1918-1921 Democratic Republic period as the national symbol. Hereinafter, up-today the state heraldry, as well as other branches of Georgian heraldic science, exist on the cross-road, in the transitional period. After almost 100 years of domination of socialist symbols, we do not have the strictly defined direction of development of Georgia heraldry so far. Deriving from this fact, no wonder that the issue of state symbols remains open.

 [1] В. С. Драчук. Рассказывает геральдика. Изд. "Наука". М. 1977 г. ст. 114.

 

Coat of arms of Georgian SSR

Coat of arms of Georgian SSR

Establishment of Soviet regime in the country deepened the abyss between heraldry and the Coat of arms of Georgia. Heraldry naturally as well became the victim of the "struggle with feudal remnants", as a result of which, we obtained as the symbol of Georgian SSR, the picture, composed on the basis of communist ideology and so-called social realism. On February 28, 1922, the article 134 of the Constitution, ratified at the I Symposium of Councils of Georgia, contained the blazoning of the State Coat of arms of the Republic: base section - the mountain range with snowy azure and purpure tops; or ears on the dexter, or vine with cluster on sinister. There are the ends of the or and the vine on the bottom of the mountain range, in the base section of the shield. There are the hammer and sickle in the centre of the coat of arms and the hammer, on the chief, is resting against the mullet, saturated from all sides, on the base - resting against the mountain tops, and on the sides - resting against the ear and vine. The composition is mantled with Georgian, Russian and French (the latest was removed on February 13, 1937) motto: "Proletarians of all countries, unite!". The motto is surrounded with the Georgian style ornament. The authors of the image are the artists: Acad. Evgeni Lansere and Iosif Charlemagne, known as the author of the Coat of arms of the Independent Republic. True, the latest has created two featureless Coats of arms of Georgia, but his merit shall be noteworthy, which he contributed in creation of symbols of the Republic of Georgia of the XX century.

  В. Поцелуев. Гербы Союза ССР. Изд. политической книги. М. 1987 г. ст. 76.
В. С. Драчук. Рассказывает геральдика. Изд. "Наука". М. 1977 г. ст. 112-113.

 

Coat of arms of the first Republic of Georgia (1918-1921)

Coat of arms of the first Republic of Georgia

The competitive project (by the artist, Ioseb Sharleman), finally adopted by the Government in 1919 was justly and severely criticized by the great Georgian artist, David Kakabadze. He published the article, in which he expressed his regret that the scientist and the artist were missing in the estimation board and that the heraldry rules have not been considered upon creating the Coat of arms. Indeed, the object of the rider is turned to non-heraldic sinister side, and the strict rules of enamel and metal usage are not considered at all. David Kakabadze particularly underlines that the object of White Giorgi is implemented in style of Russian so-called combined Moscow and Novgorod art, which in his opinion, is evident on the face of St. George and the shape of the head and legs of the horse. David Kakabadze considers the Arabic ornament, depicted on the base part of the shield, as useless and inappropriate as well. Moreover, D. Kakabadze considers that all the luminaries should have the same appearance, for instance, the appearance of the star, as seven luminaries in Georgia embodied seven princedoms and in order to avoid disparity among them, the Sun and the Moon should be removed from the composition. From our side we would like to add that the integral part of the Coat or arms - the shield - is missing. It is replaced with the formalized, seven-pointed mullet with the round field, which, by the implementation manner, is far behind the lap with Georgian ornament on the Coat of arms of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia, created by Sharleman three years after.

David Kakabadze. Coat of arms of Georgia (about the competition and the implementation). Newspaper "Forum". # 16. September 10-20, 1994.

The “complete” Coat of arms of Georgia from the Great State Coat of arms of the Empire. XIX century

The coat of arms of the kingdom of Georgia

The coat of arms of the kingdom of Georgia: the shield is partitioned per cross, with the small shield in the centre and ending. There is the coat of arms of Georgia in the middle small shield: the great martyr and powerful St. George on the or shield with the azure armor, the or cross on his chest, riding the sable horse with the or lace, slaying the dragon with sable wings and gules eyes. Section I - Coat of arms of Iberia: the argent horse rampant on the gules shield; the eight-pointed mullets in the chief sinister and base dexter parts. Section II - Coat of arms of Kartli: the fire-erupting mount, pierced with two sable arrows, pointed up, on the or shield. Section III - the Coat of arms of Kabardo lands: the or small shield reversed on the azure shield, placed on the two argent crossed arrows, pointed up, with the gules crescent; the six-pointed mullets in the first three parts. The Coat of arms of Armenia in the fourth part: the gules crowned lion on the or shield (it is noteworthy that Armenia is represented with the leopard in the well-known regional coats of arms of Vakhushti Bagrationi, there is the crown placed as well. Heraldic leopard is quite similar to lion in terms of graphic image. We presume, this kind of coincidence is not accidental, but we deal with the definite tradition of recognition of the lion as the symbol of Armenia - T.A.). The coat of arms of the Circassian and Highlander noble families in the or ending: the Circassian with argent armor, gules clothing and sable fur robe, riding the sable horse courant; the rider has the sable lance on his dexter shoulder. The coat of arms is crested with the Georgian crown. Such glorification of the royal coat of arms of Georgia might be entailed with the fact that Russia wished to splurge the multitude lands within its borders (here, we presume, influence of German heraldry is evident), and inasmuch as Russia could not define all of them with separate symbols, it considered preferable to include them into the shield of Georgia. The composition itself, with placement of or on sinister side, becomes less spectacular and gives the sense of skewness. The coat of arms, in general, with its diversity, is unique and interesting for Georgian heraldry. It could be quite used as the "claim" or the coat of arms of Georgian Empire. The given portrayal also gives some sense of pride with expressing the significance, which Georgia was for the region. Thus, though it may seem strange, but the most wide-spread version of the coat of arms of Georgia, in the form of the above-mentioned composition, can be found in the heraldry of our conqueror - Russia. As we have already mentioned, such coat of arms of the independent country could be used for the claim on the lands, but in our case, it mere once more underlines the leading role of Georgia in the whole Caucasus.

 [1] П. Винклер-фон. Ст: Госсударственный герб. Энциклопедический словарь. Изд: Ф. А. Брокгауз, И. А. Эфрон. т. IX. С-Пб. 1893 г. т. IX. ст. 406.